X-ray, Electron, and Ion Beam
Emphasis is on: simulation, design and development of new detector systems; new readout methods that enhance the signal quality for x-ray image generation; designs of novel imaging geometries; algorithms that compensate for the physical properties of the detection system to improve the clinical reliability of the image (reconstruction algorithms); and approaches to radiation dose reduction, especially in CT. Of interest are diagnostic image enhancements via photon counting, dual energy, and new applications of cone-beam tomography.
The emphasized topics are meant to lead toward: improved clinical (CT, mammography) cameras or new camera geometries; new signal-processing and image-generation algorithms; corrections for image artifacts for enhanced reliability of clinical images; studies of x-ray physics to estimate absorbed energy of diagnostic scans; and methods of visualizing or measuring therapy doses. Investigating the associated dosimetry estimations help to decrease the risk of diagnostic and therapy techniques.
- improvement in x-ray tube technologies
- construction of flat panel detector arrays
- evaluation of new semiconductor detectors and scintillators
- reconstruction algorithms for CT and cone-beam geometry
- advances of photon counting or dual energy in CT
- techniques for improved image spatial resolution and sensitivity
- investigating x-ray luminescence tomography
- design and manufacture of x-ray gratings
- investigating interferometry and (tissue-induced) phase contrast techniques
- combining modalities for clinically relevant hybrid cameras
- software algorithms which estimate patient dosimetry
- improvements in digital radiography and digital fluoroscopy
- novel interaction processing such as those using scattered x-rays
- developing ion beams for novel clinical applications
- new diagnostics applied to image-guided therapy and theranostics
- development of imaging molecular agents is supported by the Molecular Imaging program
- novel evaluation of images is supported by the Image Processing, Visual Perception and Display program
- clinical application of image-guided therapy and theranostics is supported by the Image-Guided Interventions program
X-rays were one of the first forms of biomedical imaging and NIBIB's 60 Seconds of Science explains how they create those images of bones we all know well.
CT images are more detailed than conventional x-ray images. Image slices that CT scans produce can be 2 or 3 dimensional and can reveal abnormal structures or help the physician plan and monitor treatments.